Essential information for end of life vehicle dismantling, depollution and recycling

Adam Hewitt
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Discussions with the Industry: Reconciling Design for Manufacture and Design for End of Life

Project VALUABLE, led by HSSMI, has been instrumental in shedding light on second-life opportunities for li-ion batteries. As the project closed at the end of March, we are now sharing our findings in order to generate discussion amongst the public and, in particular, those who are looking to continue the research that VALUABLE began. In this blog series, we will be discussing a different battery-related topic each time – from testing and legislation to end of life, recycling and remanufacturing. This time, we take a look at Design for End of Life (DfEoL).


Discussions with the Industry: Reconciling Design for Manufacture and Design for End of Life feat
Image: © xiaoliangge / Adobe Stock

Designing products for manufacture often seeks to enable simpler, faster and cost effective production processes while ensuring a product remains robust and fit for purpose. Design for End of Life (DfEoL) typically aims to achieve similar benefits but for the reverse process, disassembly and recovery of materials and value. While the objectives are similar, the design requirements often are not. Current battery pack designs utilise irreversible joining methods such as sealants, adhesives and welded components to prevent water ingress, loosening under vibration and ensure strong conductive joints. These methods, however, can limit the effectiveness and efficiency of disassembly techniques leading to destructive or partial disassembly – limiting the potential recoverable value. The lithium-ion cell represents a large proportion of the battery and vehicle cost, and recovery of this value for second life or remanufacture purposes can lead to a reduction in cost for the manufacturer and in turn the customer.

Implementing DfEoL principles into battery assembly, and keeping in mind the potential to disassemble a product and recover materials and value at its end of life, could present an attractive opportunity to OEMs if the control of the battery and its remaining value were to be retained with the OEM once the product reaches its end of life. For example, servitised models of consumption could help OEMs retain this value as they would be providing the customer with access to the battery’s service rather than ownership of it.

Ideally, a business case in favour of implementing DfEoL principles should be based on increased future production volumes and warranty cases. However, at the moment there is a lack of information on failure rates and failure mode analysis for electric vehicle traction batteries to make sensible assumptions and build such a model. As such, the trade-off for an OEM is largely uncertain.

Discussions in the VALUABLE Industrial Advisory Board have led to some recommendations on how it may be possible to implement DfEoL without compromising design for manufacture. These include:

  • Enhancing component shapes instead of utilising less robust joining methods, i.e. extended connection tabs in pouch type cells would allow cutting and welding back the battery cell into a module for a second life application;
  • Refining the component joining methods, i.e. reducing excessive welding so that the battery is robust enough to resist vibration and shocks but the joints can still be unwelded;
  • Exploring alternative battery integrations within the vehicle architecture to ease access for repair and dismantling.

Further research and analysis are still needed to enable OEMs to make well-informed decisions about how to implement DfEoL concepts.


The information contained in this article has been generated through discussions in the project VALUABLE Industrial Advisory Board.

See HSSMi’s previous ‘Discussions with the Industry’ articles:

Discussions with the Industry: Defining Battery Second Life Opportunities and Exploring Legislative Improvements

Discussions with the Industry: Barriers Facing the Recycling Industry, from Infrastructure to Testing and Accreditation

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Adam Hewitt

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Owain Griffiths

Owain Griffiths

Head of Circular Economy at Volvo Cars

Owain joined Volvo Cars in June 2021 to lead Circular Economy in the Global Sustainability Team. The company has committed to being a circular business by 2040 and has financial, recycled content and CO2 based targets for 2025, all of which Owain is working across the company to make happen. Owain previously worked for circular economy consultancy Oakdene Hollins where he advised businesses on evidence led circular economy implementation. 

Turning into a circular business and the importance of vehicle reuse and recycling.

The presentation will cover the work Volvo Cars is doing to achieve 2025 but mainly focus on the transformational work towards 2040 and the business and value chain changes being considered. Attention will be paid to the way vehicles are being dealt with at the end of life and the complexities of closing material and component loops. Opportunities and challenges which Volvo Cars is facing will be presented including engagement with 3rd parties and increasing pressure from stakeholders.

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e2e Total Loss Vehicle Management [e2e] is the UK’s only salvage and automotive recycling network with nationwide, environmentally compliant sites delivering performance resilience and service reliability to the insurance and fleet markets.  The network’s online salvage auction drives strong salvage resale values and faster sales.  e2e’s salvage clients have access to the network’s stocks of over 5 million quality graded, warranty assured reclaimed parts. 

The power of the network model means e2e has the ability to influence industry standards and is committed to continually raising the bar whilst redefining the role and perceived value of the salvage operator.  Network members adhere to robust service level agreements, against which they are audited, in order to ensure performance consistency and a market leading customer experience.  

The salvage and recycling operating environment is evolving rapidly, and e2e is anticipating, listening and responding to changing market needs.  Regulatory compliance, ESG, reclaimed parts, customer experience, EVs, new vehicle technologies, data and reputation risk are just some of many considerations linked to the procurement of salvage services.  e2e will drive further added value to clients and members through the adoption and application of emerging technologies, continuing to differentiate its proposition and position salvage services as a professional partnership. 

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