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Driving Circular Automotive Transformation – Part 1: A time to reimagine

The necessary transition towards a low-carbon and circular economy is already underway in the automotive sector, but do we have what it takes to deliver a real and lasting impact? In this two-part series, Mike Townsend, CEO of Earthshine Group, explores how incumbents and market disruptors are developing different models towards a brave, new net-zero and circular world. What shape will the future take, and who will be the winners in this essential quest?


“Going circular could provide the most powerful, single vehicle for delivering radical reductions in carbon emissions we have: offering a huge potential contribution towards radical climate action.”

Driving Circular Automotive Transformation - Part 1: A time to reimagine f
Mike Townsend

By the end of this decade, the automotive sector will have changed beyond all recognition.

A major transformation, involving a number of fundamental shifts, is already underway: the acceleration towards EVs, connected cars and autonomous driving, new mobility business models, racing towards the net-zero challenge, as well as embracing the circular economy revolution. New platforms and technologies are emerging in support: It’s all kicking off, everywhere!

The combined effect of these market shifts will have a profound impact for all actors in the value chain, generating many new risks, along with exciting new opportunities. For many incumbents, there are some important choices on the horizon: do we drive the future, or does the future drive us? Do we invest and disrupt, or wait to be disrupted?

While EVs can be great for enabling major reductions in lifecycle emissions – depending on the level of renewable electricity in any specific region – we still need to find strategies to deal with the embodied carbon emissions, associated with resource extraction, processing, logistics and manufacturing of new vehicles. Embodied emissions could represent around 80% of total lifecycle emissions for EVs.

This is where the circular economy comes in.

The future is circular!

Going circular could provide the most powerful, single vehicle for delivering radical reductions in carbon emissions we have: offering a huge potential contribution towards radical climate action.

The circular economy goes way beyond recycling: by keeping parts and components at their highest level of use, for multiple useful lives, we could enable up to 50 percent of our emissions-reduction targets.

The emphasis on reuse over recycling is an important point, because every time a product is downcycled into base resources, the result is a significant loss in the potential for savings in embodied carbon emissions, along with an attendant loss in asset utility and value.

For example, each time a customer buys a used car door, they can enable double the embodied emissions savings, when compared with a recycling option. Downcycling the door also leads to a reduction in asset value by 98.6%, in comparison with the selling price of a reused car door.

Of course, this makes practical sense; crushing products into base resources is bound to result in a major loss of utility and value. So, it’s hard to imagine how any serious player in the automotive industry could hope to deliver net-zero emissions without fully embracing the circular economy.

Mind the circularity gap

Despite the huge opportunity, there is a major gap in uptake and progress in delivering the circular automotive transformation.

The opportunity for reused and refurbished parts and components remains largely untapped – only 6.6% of end-of-life vehicle weight (on average) is currently harvested as parts for re-use, refurbishment and remanufacturing.

The drive towards full product circularity – in terms of circular design for disassembly and re-use – is only just starting to filter through in the automotive mainstream: with some big moves over the last 18 months, we’re at last starting to see some tangible circular strategies and action plans emerging.

As ever, there are a few leading lights, pushing the boundaries of possibility; companies including Groupe Renault, PSA and others are all making major circular commitments and following through with genuinely exciting plans, initiatives and new investments.

BMW also appears to be on the right road. As Dr Thomas Becker — their VP for Sustainability and Mobility — asserts, “We will not get on a Paris-compliant pathway just by replacing energy in primary consumption. The circular economy is absolutely necessary for companies with climate targets that cover the supply chain, as ours do.”

BMW is now aiming to integrate 50 percent reused and recycled content into new vehicle production by 2030 — a major contribution to its emissions-reduction programme. It will be interesting to see what emphasis BMW places on genuine reuse versus downcycling.

Toyota is also doing some interesting work with its new ‘Kinto’ proposition – an interesting new model for extending the life of existing vehicles — through upgrading (new technology) and remodelling (refurbishing) vehicles, while also maintaining longer-term customer relationships.

Innovations in supply

Circular economy aspirations from the big vehicle manufacturers are all well and good, but we also have to consider the supply side of an emerging circular automotive industry. There’s an obvious focus on designing new parts for circularity, but we should also be mindful of keeping existing parts in the loop.

Many salvage companies have been driving the agenda for re-used and refurbished parts for decades, and have established solid reputations for harvesting a good range of quality parts for reuse and remanufacture. But, they will now need to step up and reach new levels of circular innovation.

eBay UK has also played an important role as an ‘aggregator’ in closing the circular resource gap – scaling up the sale of reused and refurbished automotive parts through its Recommerce model.

eBay UK sells just under one million used and refurbished vehicle parts, each year through its B2B platform – helping to improve the sustainability impacts for millions of customers, by avoiding thousands of tonnes of embedded carbon emissions associated with the production and consumption of new vehicle parts. In 2020, eBay UK enabled 4,510 tonnes of parts to be kept in use, delivering a net saving of 29,000 tonnes of CO2e.

This level of performance is great, as far as it goes, but it’s not the final destination: delivering the full potential for a circular automotive industry will take many more steps, not least in working through what happens next, after reused parts are sold into the market: Do we have a cunning plan to bring them back into our closed-loop, again, or will they disappear from view? If parts are ‘out of sight, out of mind’, we leave the potential for further circular reuse and remanufacturing, completely to chance. And that, quite frankly, is not going to be enough in the era of climate crisis.

The necessary drive for greater circularity will itself push the development of value chain infrastructure to enable the capture and total management of all parts and resources for re-use and recycling – ensuring all resources are returned back into the automotive value chain, rather than becoming lost into global commodity markets.

We are at an important crossroads, with an important opportunity to go much further in developing an integrated circular automotive value chain. But the industry needs more vision, strategy and concerted action to bring about a new circular and low-carbon reality.

A time to reimagine?

While going circular is a seemingly straight-forward and attractive idea, everything changes. Taking this road, we set off a chain reaction through the value chain.

We take on a very different role in business; we become asset custodians, seeking to preserve utility and value; we establish a completely new relationship with the customer, no longer just short-term and transactional; we drive new innovations in product design, materials and sourcing; we develop new business processes and infrastructure; and a profoundly different business model. Everything changes.

Of course, change is never easy, and so progress is way too slow.

At present, we can observe two different worlds, not really coming together. On one side, the shiny world of vehicle manufacturers pumping out new cars, with some recycled content; on the other side, the earnest endeavour of vehicle recyclers, harvesting used parts, as best they can within current demand patterns and available technologies, but mainly relying on downcycling to sell base resources into commodity markets, or for further processing by others.

A more strategic approach to net-zero would involve bending the entire value chain into a genuinely more circular shape – bringing these two different worlds together – engaging all actors, including progressive vehicle recyclers, manufacturers and remanufacturers, co-creating more circular, closed loops; delivering net-zero emissions, along with massive resource savings. As industry actors start embracing this level of change, we can start to wonder, just how circular can we get?

Of course, delivering circular automotive will necessarily involve new partnerships and collaborations, right through the value chain – built around new sourcing strategies, new closed-loop infrastructure, as well as long-term planning and investment. Hans Pehrson at Polestar considers that “collaboration is needed way beyond normal business-to-business relationships.”

The question is, who will lead the circular automotive transformation? Will it be the powerful industry incumbents, or will a new breed of market disrupters seize the moment? We’ll explore two very different future-oriented models in Part 2: The next generation.

Mike Townsend is founder and chief executive of Earthshine Group and the author of The Quiet Revolution.

This is an abridged version of an article, originally published on


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Owain Griffiths

Owain Griffiths

Head of Circular Economy at Volvo Cars

Owain joined Volvo Cars in June 2021 to lead Circular Economy in the Global Sustainability Team. The company has committed to being a circular business by 2040 and has financial, recycled content and CO2 based targets for 2025, all of which Owain is working across the company to make happen. Owain previously worked for circular economy consultancy Oakdene Hollins where he advised businesses on evidence led circular economy implementation. 

Turning into a circular business and the importance of vehicle reuse and recycling.

The presentation will cover the work Volvo Cars is doing to achieve 2025 but mainly focus on the transformational work towards 2040 and the business and value chain changes being considered. Attention will be paid to the way vehicles are being dealt with at the end of life and the complexities of closing material and component loops. Opportunities and challenges which Volvo Cars is facing will be presented including engagement with 3rd parties and increasing pressure from stakeholders.

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e2e Total Loss Vehicle Management [e2e] is the UK’s only salvage and automotive recycling network with nationwide, environmentally compliant sites delivering performance resilience and service reliability to the insurance and fleet markets.  The network’s online salvage auction drives strong salvage resale values and faster sales.  e2e’s salvage clients have access to the network’s stocks of over 5 million quality graded, warranty assured reclaimed parts. 

The power of the network model means e2e has the ability to influence industry standards and is committed to continually raising the bar whilst redefining the role and perceived value of the salvage operator.  Network members adhere to robust service level agreements, against which they are audited, in order to ensure performance consistency and a market leading customer experience.  

The salvage and recycling operating environment is evolving rapidly, and e2e is anticipating, listening and responding to changing market needs.  Regulatory compliance, ESG, reclaimed parts, customer experience, EVs, new vehicle technologies, data and reputation risk are just some of many considerations linked to the procurement of salvage services.  e2e will drive further added value to clients and members through the adoption and application of emerging technologies, continuing to differentiate its proposition and position salvage services as a professional partnership. 

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