Essential information for end of life vehicle dismantling, depollution and recycling


New report highlights risks to BEV adoption if repair and insurance sector concerns are not addressed

Automotive risk intelligence company, Thatcham Research, is today issuing a report, funded by the UK Government’s innovation agency (Innovate UK), that highlights the technical and practical differences between BEV and ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicle insurance claims processes. The report examines potentially significant implications for motor insurers, their supply chains and, in turn, consumer acceptance.

New report highlights risks to BEV adoption if repair and insurance sector concerns are not addressed p
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Despite newer BEVs featuring high fitment levels of ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) and passive safety technologies, they are not risk or incident free. Due to the nascent nature of the industry, BEV incident claims are currently ~25.5% more expensive than their ICE equivalents and can take ~14% longer to repair. Road collisions involving a BEV can be catastrophic for the vehicle as understanding and competence in rectifying the damage continues to develop.

Battery assessment and repairability

The most significant challenges identified by the report originate from the high voltage (HV) battery. BEV batteries represent a substantial percentage of the original vehicle value and are, therefore, rapidly presenting a negative impact on the economic model of vehicle repair. Although there is a relatively small number of BEVs in the market, there is an understandable but concerning lack of affordable or available repair solutions and post-accident diagnostics.

Thatcham Research’s data-driven modelling shows that in 2022, 9,400 vehicles were potentially involved in collisions resulting in battery inclusion in the repair. This is estimated to reach up to 260,000 vehicles annually by 2035.

Adrian Watson, head of engineering research, at Thatcham Research, comments:

“Without meaningful change, there is a strong likelihood that claims costs will continue to rise disproportionally.

Much of the motor insurance industry is yet to adapt to mass BEV adoption challenges, and the implications remain unquantified on repair capacity, training and skills, cost, and the lifetime sustainability of BEVs. This lack of awareness means many BEVs are often deemed irreparable, leading to premature write-offs because of high battery cost and the lack of value the UK ecosystem can recover from them.”

Currently, the cost of a replacement HV battery is causing a significant increase in the risk of ‘total loss’ or write-offs. The cost of HV batteries varies widely from high-end vehicles, currently costing ~£29,500, to the low-end costing ~£14,200. The ‘depreciation curve’ of battery cost versus average used value, shows that the cost of a replacement battery is more than the used price of the vehicle after only one year.

Watson continues, “These cost increases present a significant risk to BEV uptake, reducing potential economic and sustainability gains. Technical solutions do exist for most if not all of these challenges. However, it is vital that credible cross-industry plans are urgently put into place that focus on addressing battery cost, diagnostics, and the creation of a sustainable ecosystem for battery repair.”

Other considerations for BEV repairability

Government guidelines state that due to potential fire risk, damaged BEVs awaiting repair should be stored in an outside quarantine area, at a safe distance of 15 metres from other nearby objects. As such, an outside storage space with capacity for 100 ICE vehicles, would allow for the safe quarantine of just two BEVs, representing a potential 98% reduction in repair capacity. The cost incurred through following recommended quarantine protocols of 48hrs will add a minimum of £60 to every claim, the report states.

If the vehicle cannot be safely stored at the repair centre there will be further costs associated with transportation to and from an alternative location, storage at the alternative location, along with a longer duration of hire vehicle.

Watson comments, “This could result in a measurable rise in associated claim cost and duration, negatively impacting on the BEV ownership experience.

This presumed rise in cost is a result of just one element of the BEV claims process flow. However, there are many other factors which may also result in further insurance premium costs due to the differing processes that follow a BEV collision. These range from limited access to battery diagnostics to enable a better understanding of battery health and potential repair options, to the increased weight of a BEV creating challenges to roadside recovery and a requirement for bodyshops to make costly investments in specialised repair skills and equipment.”


“It’s important to reiterate that most, if not all, of the outcomes highlighted by the report could be avoided with the right solutions in place,” said Watson.

The report’s authors would suggest investment in further cross-industry work to identify more detailed solutions and to make direct recommendations about a range of interventions or support to accelerate those solutions. For example, by understanding the needs of vehicle manufacturers, repairers, insurers, and salvagers to optimise the supply of new/refurbished/recovered batteries in vehicle repair.

Thatcham Research continues to work closely with Government and Vehicle Manufacturers to identify solutions to the issues raised by the report.

To access a full copy of the report, click here.

Industry Commentary

Jonathan Fong, Association of British Insurers (ABI) Senior Policy Adviser, General Insurance, said: “The insurance industry fully supports the roll-out of electric vehicles and is actively working with Government to help meet their 2035 targets for zero-emission vehicles. With any new technology, there will be factors that need to be worked through, including a host of considerations in the insurance and vehicle repair supply chains. We’ve been calling for more investment in training and reskilling automotive technicians to help develop a robust and independent repair network that can cope with an increasingly electrified fleet.”

Chris Payne, Head of Networks and Engineering at LV= General Insurance – which supported the research with motor insurance claims modelling – added:

“As one of the major insurers in the UK, we’re working hard to find solutions to some of the current challenges around EVs. This includes upskilling the next generation of technicians and redesigning and developing our new and existing repair sites. As an industry we also need to ensure there is collaboration between insurers, car manufactures, salvage agents, repairers and the entire supply chain. This will ultimately help us work towards a combined goal that enables the latest vehicle technology to be repaired safely, and efficiently with the right skills, tooling and equipment to ensure we meet the needs of the future.”

Michael Hill, Operations Director at SYNETIQ, a specialist in vehicle salvage, dismantling and recycling, which brought essential insight to the report around market readiness for financially and environmentally sustainable EV repair, said:

“The report highlights the UK’s need of a stronger infrastructure to support the lifecycle of a BEV. From a recycling point of view, we need more data from manufacturers to be able to process the vehicles in a safe, cost-efficient, and sustainable way. A joined-up approach and more knowledge sharing throughout the entire supply chain would help to facilitate the safe handling and repairing as well as recycling and repurposing of collision-damaged BEVs. This would support the industry in creating a sustainable, cost-effective way of handling the batteries and electrical components.”

About Innovate UK

Innovate UK are the UK government’s innovation agency. We support business-led innovation in all sectors, technologies and UK regions. We help businesses grow through the development and commercialisation of new products, processes, and services, supported by an outstanding innovation ecosystem that is agile, inclusive, and easy to navigate.

Innovate UK – UKRI


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Owain Griffiths

Owain Griffiths

Head of Circular Economy at Volvo Cars

Owain joined Volvo Cars in June 2021 to lead Circular Economy in the Global Sustainability Team. The company has committed to being a circular business by 2040 and has financial, recycled content and CO2 based targets for 2025, all of which Owain is working across the company to make happen. Owain previously worked for circular economy consultancy Oakdene Hollins where he advised businesses on evidence led circular economy implementation. 

Turning into a circular business and the importance of vehicle reuse and recycling.

The presentation will cover the work Volvo Cars is doing to achieve 2025 but mainly focus on the transformational work towards 2040 and the business and value chain changes being considered. Attention will be paid to the way vehicles are being dealt with at the end of life and the complexities of closing material and component loops. Opportunities and challenges which Volvo Cars is facing will be presented including engagement with 3rd parties and increasing pressure from stakeholders.

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e2e Total Loss Vehicle Management [e2e] is the UK’s only salvage and automotive recycling network with nationwide, environmentally compliant sites delivering performance resilience and service reliability to the insurance and fleet markets.  The network’s online salvage auction drives strong salvage resale values and faster sales.  e2e’s salvage clients have access to the network’s stocks of over 5 million quality graded, warranty assured reclaimed parts. 

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